ISSN 0371-0874, CN 31-1352/Q

最新录用

特立独行的第二脑-肠神经系统

李军华1,段睿1,李俍5, 伍德•杰克3, 望西玉1,3,4, 舒友生2*,王过渡1,3,4*

1. 湖北省荆门市第一人民医院消化疾病科, 荆门448000;2. 复旦大学脑科学转化研究院, 上海200032; 3. 俄亥俄州立大学生理和细胞生物系,哥伦布 43210,美国; 4. 脑-肠神经系统与疾病研究所,西切斯特45069,美国; 5. 北京师范大学认知神经科学与学习国家重点实验室

摘要

肠神经系统(enteric nervous system ENS)由分布在肠壁的粘膜下及肌间两个神经丛组成,能独立地控制和调节胃肠的消化和吸收功能,被称为机体的第二脑(second brain)或肠脑(gut brain)ENS相对于中枢神经系统(central nervous systemCNS)在神经元的性能和环路上有着明显的独特性。 ENSCNS通过交感和副交感神经(sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves)和外周初级感觉神经组成反馈环路(-肠轴),影响个体的情绪、食欲和行为等其他功能。肠神经功能异常引起的胃肠功能紊乱不仅仅导致消化功能异常,也引起内脏痛及情绪和行为异常,例如肠易激综合症(irritable bowel syndromeIBS),严重影响病人的生活质量。然而, 从世界范围来看,对ENS研究的深入程度和投入规模远低于对CNS的研究, 在中国尤其如此。 回顾ENS的研究历史,一个突出的问题是忽视了ENS的神经元及其神经网络和功能活动的特异性。本文将简介ENS结构和功能,并以作者在ENS研究课题中遇到的问题,举例重点阐述ENS独有的特性和重要意义,以期能让更多的基础和临床的同仁们加深对ENS独特性的认识,促进ENS和相关疾病研究的顺利发展。

关键字: 肠神经系统;神经元;独特性;胃肠功能;神经性功能紊乱;

分类号:

Extraordinary Characteristics of Second Brain-Enteric Nervous System

LI Jun-Hua1,DUAN Rui1, LI Liang5, WOOD Jackie D3, WANG Xi-Yu1,3,4, SHU Yousheng2, and WANG Guo-Du 1,3,4

1. Department of Gastroenterology, Jingmen First Hospital, Hubei 448000, China;2.Institute for translational brain research, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032,China; 3.Department of Physiology and Cell Biology,The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA; 4. Institute of Brain-ENS and Disease Research, West Chester 45069, USA; 5. State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China

Abstract

Enteric nervous system (ENS) is consisted of intestinal submucosal and myenteric plexuses. ENS controls and regulates independently intestinal digestive and absorptive functionso it is also known as second brain or gut brain. ENS has significant specificity relative to central nervous system (CNS) in properties and functional activity of neurons and neural circuits. ENS and CNS affect emotion, appetite and behavioral states of individuals through the feedback pathway (brain-gut-axi) of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves and peripheral primary sensory afferent. Gastrointestinal functional disorder (GIFD) induced by ENS dysfunction would lead to visceral pain and bad emotion and even abnormal behavior, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). GIFD would influence deeply the quality of life of patients. Nevertheless, in the worldwide, ENS receives much less attention as compared with CNS. The depth of research and scale of investment in ENS studies have been much lower than in CNS. The situation in China is even more. From ENS research history, a outstanding problem is to ignoring largely the unique properties of ENS and applying mechanically the hypotheses formed in CNS studies to ENS researches. In this review, the structure and function of ENS are briefly introduced, and importance of extraordinary characteristics of ENS are illustrated by the problems encountered in   our studies. We hope the more basic and clinic researchers will deepen the understanding of the uniqueness of ENS to promote the favourable development of researches on ENS and related diseases.


Key words: enteric nervous system (ENS); neuron; gastrointestinal function; nervous dysfunction;

收稿日期:2019-09-26  录用日期:2020-01-02