西北师范大学体育学院，兰州 730070；浙江师范大学行知学院，金华 321004
本研究旨在观察4种低氧训练模式对大鼠骨骼肌线粒体抗氧化能力及呼吸链酶复合体活性的影响。将雄性Wistar大鼠40只随机均分为5组(n=8)：常氧训练组(LoLo)、高住高练组(HiHi)、高住低训组(HiLo)、低住高练组(LoHi)和高住高练低训组(HiHiLo)。各组大鼠分别在常氧(海拔1 500 m，大气压632 mmHg)或/和低氧(模拟海拔3 500 m，大气压493 mmHg)环境中居住及递增负荷训练5周，每周训练6天。各组大鼠在最后一次训练后，在常氧环境恢复3天，然后进行力竭运动，之后即刻取骨骼肌样本，用差速离心法提取骨骼肌线粒体，分光光度法测定丙二醛(malondialdehyde, MDA)含量及超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase, SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px)和过氧化氢酶(catalase, CAT)活性及呼吸链酶复合体Ⅰ~Ⅲ (CⅠ~Ⅲ)活性。结果显示，与LoLo组相比，HiHi和HiHiLo组骨骼肌组织MDA含量均显著升高(P<0.01)，SOD、GSH-Px和CAT活性均显著升高(P<0.05或P<0.01)。与LoLo组相比，HiHi和HiHiLo组骨骼肌线粒体MDA含量均显著降低(P<0.01)，SOD、GSH-Px活性均显著升高(P<0.01)；HiLo组和LoHi组骨骼肌线粒体GSH-Px活性也显著性升高(P<0.01)。与LoLo组相比，HiHi和HiHiLo组骨骼肌线粒体呼吸链CⅠ~Ⅲ活性均显著提高(P<0.01)；HiLo组骨骼肌线粒体呼吸链CⅡ活性显著提高(P<0.01)。上述结果提示，高住高练低训法可能是运动员较好的低氧训练模式。
关键词： 低氧训练; 骨骼肌; 线粒体; 丙二醛; 抗氧化酶; 呼吸链; 酶复合体
[Effects of different hypoxic training modes on activities of mitochondrial antioxidants and respiratory chain complex in skeletal muscle after exhaustive running in rat.] [Article in Chinese]
LI Jie*, ZHANG Yao-Bin
College of Physical Education, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China； College of Xingzhi, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China
The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of hypoxic training on mitochondrial antioxidants and activities of respiratory chain complexes in mitochondria of skeletal muscle in rats. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomized to 5 groups (n=8): living low-training low (LoLo), living high-training high (HiHi), living high-training low (HiLo), living low-training high (LoHi), and living high-exercise high-training low (HiHiLo). All the animals were subjected to 5-week training in normoxic (atmospheric pressure=632 mmHg, altitude of about 1 500 m) or hypoxic environment (atmospheric pressure=493 mmHg, simulated altitude of about 3 500 m). Before exhaustive running, the animals stayed in normoxia for 3 d. Skeletal muscles were prepared immediately after exhaustive running. Muscle mitochondria were extracted by differential centrifugation. Spectrophotometric analysis was used to evaluate activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) level and respiratory chain complex (C) I-III activities in muscle homogenate and mitochondria. Results showed that SOD, GSH-Px, CAT activities and MDA level in skeletal muscle homogenate in HiHi and HiHiLo groups were significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01) compared with those in LoLo group. Muscle mitochondrial MDA level in HiHi and HiHiLo groups was significantly lower (P<0.01), while activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT were remarkably higher (P<0.01) than those in LoLo group. Meanwhile, C I-III activities in HiHi and HiHiLo groups were increased significantly (P<0.01), and C II activity in HiLo group also was increased remarkably (P<0.01) compared with those in LoLo group. These results suggest that HiHiLo might be an ideal hypoxic training mode.
Key words: hypoxic training; skeletal muscle tissue; mitochondria; malondialdehyde; antioxidant; respiratory chain; multi-enzymatic complexes
通讯作者：李洁 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
李洁, 张耀斌. 不同低氧训练模式对大鼠力竭运动后骨骼肌线粒体抗氧化能力及呼吸链酶复合体活性的影响[J]. 生理学报 2011; 63 (1): 55-61.
LI Jie, ZHANG Yao-Bin. [Effects of different hypoxic training modes on activities of mitochondrial antioxidants and respiratory chain complex in skeletal muscle after exhaustive running in rat.] [Article in Chinese]. Acta Physiol Sin 2011; 63 (1): 55-61 (in Chinese with English abstract).