卵巢作为雌性哺乳动物的性腺，是由卵母细胞和不同类型的体细胞组成的异质性器官。卵巢在功能上，一方面担负 了与雌性个体健康有关的内分泌调节功能，另一方面则承载了产生成熟卵母细胞并繁衍子代的重要任务。而承担上述功能 的单位为卵泡，即卵母细胞和卵泡体细胞共同构成的复合体。对于具有较长生殖寿命的哺乳动物而言，卵泡在卵巢内的发 育是一个内部协同与外部调控的精密有序过程。其中后期促性腺激素依赖的有腔卵泡发育直接调控生殖周期的产生，而近 期越来越多的证据表明早期卵泡的有序发育与雌性生殖寿命维持密切关联。因此，卵泡在体正常发育与雌性个体的健康息 息相关；而深入探索卵泡发育调控机制，可直接指导我们认识包括人类在内的雌性哺乳动物生殖寿命的维持机制，并在未 来对其进行可能的调控。近年来，伴随着新技术和新方法的产生，特别是基因修饰动物的开发以及新型显微技术的出现， 对卵泡发育特别是早期卵泡发育的调控机制研究有了长足的进步。本综述围绕着卵泡在体发育中的关键生理事件，将近年 来对卵泡的生理发育调节机制研究进行梳理，并重点聚焦于早期卵泡发育的体内相关调控机制研究进展。
Research advances in regulating mechanisms of mammalian ovarian folliculogenesis
ZHANG Yan, ZHANG Hua*
State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Ovary, the female gonad in mammals, is a heterogeneous organ consisting of oocytes and various types of somatic cells. The functions of ovary is not only governing the health of individual female by regulating endocrine status, but also determining the production of mature oocytes which allow the continuation of species. As the fundamental unit of female reproduction, ovarian follicle consists of germline oocyte and follicle somatic cells, and the folliculogenesis is an accurate and orderly process of internal coordination and external regulation in mammals. The gonadotropin-dependent stage of follicle development, from early antral follicle to ovulation, directly regulates the reproductive cycles of the female, has been extensively investigated. Recently, increased lines of evidence show that the fine tuned early folliculogenesis plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of female reproductive lifespan. Further exploration of the mechanism of follicular development could lead to a more comprehensive understanding about how females maintain their proper reproductive lifespan in mammals, which may provide the possibility to design new therapeutic approaches against female reproductive ageing in future. With the advances of technologies and methods, especially the widespread application of genetically modified animals and novel microscopic technology, the research on regulating mechanisms of in vivo follicular development, especially the early stage development of follicles, has made great progress. In this review, we summarized the regulating mechanisms of in vivo folliculogenesis around the key developmental events under physiological conditions, with a focus on the research progress of the early development of follicles in recent years.
通讯作者：张华 E-mail: email@example.com
张焱, 张华. 哺乳动物卵巢卵泡发育调控机制研究进展[J]. 生理学报 2020; 72 (1): 63-74.
ZHANG Yan, ZHANG Hua. Research advances in regulating mechanisms of mammalian ovarian folliculogenesis. Acta Physiol Sin 2020; 72 (1): 63-74 (in Chinese with English abstract).