ISSN 0371-0874, CN 31-1352/Q

当期文章

氨基酸调控肝脏糖脂代谢的作用与机制

蒋晓雪, 郭非凡*

中国科学院上海营养与健康研究所,上海 200031

摘要

氨基酸是人必需的营养物质,具有广泛的生物学功能,它是蛋白质的组成单位,能量代谢物质。此外,它还作为信号分子广泛参与对多种生理功能的维持与调控,并在转录、翻译、翻译后修饰等多个层面上发挥作用。肝脏是关键的代谢器官,它充当连接各种组织代谢的枢纽。氨基酸感应在肝脏糖脂代谢的调控中起到十分重要的作用。因此准确地感应细胞内和细胞外氨基酸的水平,成为维持细胞内稳态的关键。真核细胞中存在一些众所周知的氨基酸感应因子,即一般性调控阻遏蛋白激酶2 (general control non-derepressible-2, GCN2)、哺乳动物雷帕霉素靶蛋白(mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR)以及味觉受体等,在维持机体代谢稳态中发挥重要作用。本文对氨基酸调控肝脏糖脂代谢的作用与机制做了详细介绍,为进一步探究氨基酸感应机制以及治疗肝脏糖脂代谢紊乱疾病奠定了基础。


关键词: 氨基酸; 肝脏; 代谢; GCN2; mTOR

分类号:R333.4;Q485;Q517

The role and mechanism of amino acids in regulating hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism

JIANG Xiao-Xue, GUO Fei-Fan*

Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China

Abstract

Amino acids are essential nutrients for humans and have a wide range of biological functions. They are the constituent units of protein and energy metabolites. In addition, they are also widely involved in the maintenance and regulation of various physiological functions, and play a role in transcription, translation, post-translational modification and other levels. The liver is a key metabolic organ, and it acts as a hub that connects the metabolism of various tissues. Amino acid sensing plays a very important role in the regulation of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Therefore, accurately sensing the levels of intracellular and extracellular amino acids is the key to maintaining cell homeostasis. There are several well-known amino acid sensors in eukaryotic cells, such as general control non-derepressible-2 (GCN2), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and taste receptors, which play an important role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. This article gives a detailed introduction to the role and mechanism of amino acids in regulating hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism, laying a foundation for further exploration of amino acid sensing mechanism and treatment of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism disorders.


Key words: Amino acid; liver; metabolism; GCN2; mTOR

收稿日期:2020-11-12  录用日期:2021-03-11

通讯作者:郭非凡  E-mail: ffguo@sibs.ac.cn

DOI: 10.13294/j.aps.2021.0064

引用本文:

蒋晓雪, 郭非凡. 氨基酸调控肝脏糖脂代谢的作用与机制[J]. 生理学报 2021; 73 (5): 723-733.

JIANG Xiao-Xue, GUO Fei-Fan. The role and mechanism of amino acids in regulating hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Acta Physiol Sin 2021; 73 (5): 723-733 (in Chinese with English abstract).