陈亚琼, 刘雅欣, 王蕾, 周玲芹, 刘浥*
生物钟(circadian clock)是机体内在的自主性计时系统，包括视交叉上核(suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN)中枢生物钟与各组织外周生物钟。分子生物钟的核心机制包括CLOCK/BMAL1二聚体诱导抑制因子CRYs和PERs的转录，CRYs/PERs复合物反馈抑制前者转录活性，进而使这些生物钟核心因子以及节律输出基因的转录水平呈24 h振荡的反馈调节核心环路，以及REV-ERBα和RORα调控BMAL1转录的补充环路。机体大约80%的蛋白编码基因表达呈现明显的昼夜节律性特征，生物钟系统使生物能够适应地球自转所产生的昼夜节律(近日节律)，使机体的代谢平衡与能量相互协同。生物钟与代谢稳态相互依存、互为基础，使机体能够高效利用能量，协同机体不同组织，快速适应内外环境变化。肝脏作为机体代谢的中枢器官，其进行的各种生理活动几乎都受到生物钟的控制。生物钟与肝脏代谢调控之间存在多重交互调控机制，两者的交互平衡失调是代谢性疾病的高风险因素。本文主要就肝脏的糖、脂和蛋白质代谢的节律性调控进行了综述，并强调了线粒体功能的振荡，讨论了肝脏代谢对生物钟的反馈调节，并对生物钟研究方法和应用进行展望。
Internal circadian clock and liver metabolism
CHEN Ya-Qiong, LIU Ya-Xin, WANG Lei, ZHOU Ling-Qin, LIU Yi*
Key Laboratory of Metabolism and Molecular Medicine, Ministry of Education, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
Circadian clock is an internal autonomous time-keeping system, including central clocks located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peripheral clocks. The molecular circadian clock consists of a set of interlocking transcriptional-translational feedback loops that take the clock-controlled genes 24 h to oscillate. The core mechanism of molecular circadian clock is that CLOCK/BMAL1 dimer activates the transcription of cryptochromes (CRYs) and Periods (PERs), which act as transcriptional repressors of further CLOCK/BMAL1-mediated transcription. In addition to this basic clock, there is an additional sub-loop of REV-ERBα and RORα regulating the transcription of BMAL1. Approximately 80% protein-coding genes demonstrate significant rhythmicity. The earth rotation is responsible for the generation of the daily circadian rhythms. To coordinate metabolic balance and energy availability, almost all organisms adapt to the rhythm. Studies have shown that circadian clock integrating with metabolic homeostasis increases the efficiency of energy usage and coordinates with different organs in order to adapt to internal physiology and external environment soon. As the central organ of metabolism, the liver performs various physiological activities nearly all controlled by the circadian clock. There are multiple interactive regulation mechanisms between the circadian clock and the regulation of liver metabolism. The misalignment of metabolism with tissue circadian is identified as a high-risk factor of metabolic diseases. This article reviews the recent studies on circadian physiological regulation of liver glucose, lipid and protein metabolism and emphasizes oscillation of mitochondrial function. We also take an outlook for new methods and application of circadian clock research in the future.
通讯作者：刘浥 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
陈亚琼, 刘雅欣, 王蕾, 周玲芹, 刘浥. 生物钟节律与肝脏代谢稳态[J]. 生理学报 2021; 73 (5): 734-744.
CHEN Ya-Qiong, LIU Ya-Xin, WANG Lei, ZHOU Ling-Qin, LIU Yi. Internal circadian clock and liver metabolism. Acta Physiol Sin 2021; 73 (5): 734-744 (in Chinese with English abstract).