车浩, 应晓江, 李振军, 陈明敏*
丁酸盐是一种常见的肠道细菌代谢产物，不仅为细胞提供能量，还能改变胞内某些蛋白的磷酸化、乙酰化和甲基化水平，进而影响相关基因表达和细胞信号传递。丁酸盐还可以通过G蛋白耦联受体促进肠道黏液分泌和上皮屏障形成，降低致病菌及其代谢产物对人体的影响。Toll样受体(Toll-like receptors, TLRs)是一类模式识别受体，其活化引起胞内链式反应，进而导致核因子κB (nuclear factor κB, NF-κB)活化，促进其从细胞质转入细胞核，最终引起多种促炎因子和趋化因子的分泌和表达。此外，TLRs的表达还与一些炎症性疾病和肿瘤发生有关。本文旨在阐述丁酸盐对TLRs及其下游信号通路的影响，总结了在炎症和肿瘤条件下丁酸盐的产生与TLRs表达的关系及其两者相互作用对机体产生的影响，进而讨论了丁酸盐作为细菌代谢物在治疗相关疾病中的潜在价值。
Regulation of Toll-like receptors and their downstream factors by butyrate
CHE Hao, YING Xiao-Jiang, LI Zhen-Jun, CHEN Ming-Min*
Shaoxing University School of Medicine, Shaoxing 312000, China
Butyrate, normally produced by probiotics in the gut, not only provides energy for cells, but also changes the phosphorylation, acetylation and methylation levels of many proteins in cells. As a result, it affects the expression of many genes and the transmission of cell signals. Through G protein-coupled receptors, butyrate promotes the secretion of intestinal mucus and the formation of epithelial barriers, and attenuates the impacts of the pathogenic bacteria and their metabolites on human body. The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of pattern recognition receptors, and their activation causes the translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and eventually leads to expression and secretion of various pro-inflammatory factors and chemokines. The expression of TLRs is also involved in the pathogenesis of some inflammatory diseases and tumors. The purpose of this review is to summarize the effects of butyrate on TLRs and their downstream signaling pathways. We not only summarized the production of butyrate, the expression of TLRs and the influence of their interaction on the body under the conditions of inflammation and tumor, but also discussed the potential role of butyrate as a bacterial metabolite in the treatments of some human diseases.
通讯作者：陈明敏 E-mail: email@example.com
车浩, 应晓江, 李振军, 陈明敏. 丁酸盐对Toll样受体及其下游因子的调节[J]. 生理学报 2022; 74 (5): 827-836.
CHE Hao, YING Xiao-Jiang, LI Zhen-Jun, CHEN Ming-Min. Regulation of Toll-like receptors and their downstream factors by butyrate. Acta Physiol Sin 2022; 74 (5): 827-836 (in Chinese with English abstract).