血管钙化(vascular calcification) 是钙磷在血管壁的异常沉积，临床多见于动脉粥样硬化的斑块、糖尿病、衰老、高血压和慢性肾病、尿毒症的血管及心脏瓣膜。既往研究认为血管钙化是钙磷在血管壁的被动沉积过程，近年血管影像学和细胞分子生物学的发展证实血管钙化是与骨或软骨发育类似的主动的、可逆转的、高度可调控的过程。血管钙化时血管平滑肌细胞、内皮细胞、外膜肌成纤维细胞、管周细胞、间充质细胞和造血干细胞相互作用且对内外环境因素的刺激发生反应，激活骨形态发生信号刺激血管细胞向成骨或软骨细胞样表型转化，导致血管钙化的发生。血管钙化亦是动脉粥样硬化、高血压、糖尿病、慢性肾病和衰老等疾病共同的病理生理特征。钙化的血管壁僵硬性增加，顺应性降低，进而导致心肌缺血、心室肥大和心力衰竭，引发血栓形成、斑块破裂，是心脑血管疾病急性终点事件和糖尿病外周血管病发生的重要标志，也是心血管疾病发病和死亡的主要独立危险因子。因此，阐明血管钙化的发病机制以及在血管钙化的早期抑制或逆转是目前防治血管钙化相关疾病亟待解决的重要基础和临床前沿热点问题。本期设立血管钙化专栏，邀请了国内学者结合自己的工作综述了血管钙化的研究进展、报道了最新的研究成果。
Special Topic on Vascular Calcification-Preface
QI Yong-Fen, KONG Wei*
Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China
Vascular calcification is the abnormal deposition of calcium and phosphorus in the vascular wall. It is commonly seen in atherosclerotic plaque, diabetes, aging, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, uremic blood vessels and heart valves. Previous studies have considered that vascular calcification is a passive deposition process of calcium and phosphorus in the vascular wall. Recent developments in vascular imaging and cell molecular biology have confirmed that vascular calcification is an active, reversible and highly regulated process similar to bone or cartilage development. When vascular calcification occurs, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, adventitia muscle fibroblasts, peritubular cells, mesenchymal cells and hematopoietic stem cells interact with each other and react to the stimulation of internal and external environmental factors, activating bone morphogenetic signals to stimulate vascular cells to transform into osteoblast or chondrocyte like phenotype, leading to the occurrence of vascular calcification. Vascular calcification is also a common pathophysiological feature of atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, aging and other diseases. The stiffness of calcified vascular wall increases and compliance decreases, leading to myocardial ischemia, ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure, leading to thrombosis and plaque rupture. It is an important indicator of the acute endpoint of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and the occurrence of diabetes peripheral vascular diseases, and also a major independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease onset and death. Therefore, clarifying the pathogenesis of vascular calcification and its inhibition or reversal in the early stage is an important foundation and clinical frontier hot issue to be solved in the prevention and treatment of vascular calcification related diseases. This issue sets up a column on vascular calcification, inviting domestic scholars to review the research progress of vascular calcification and report the latest research results based on their own work.
通讯作者：孔炜 E-mail: email@example.com
齐永芬, 孔炜. 血管钙化专栏——序言[J]. 生理学报 2022; 74 (6): 857-858.
QI Yong-Fen, KONG Wei. Special Topic on Vascular Calcification-Preface. Acta Physiol Sin 2022; 74 (6): 857-858 (in Chinese with English abstract).